Where does the name “Denim” come from?
Since Denim started to be produced in “Nimes” in France, it took its name from this city which means “from Nimes”. Denim first started to be produced as a work uniform in the cities of Nimes in France and Genoa in Italy. At the origin of Blue Jeans is the Genoese seamen who wear blue cotton trousers called “Bleu de Genes” (Genoese blue).
What is Indigo?
Indigo is a dye produced from the leaves of the plant “indigofera tinctoria”. The use of indigo dates back to 1600 BC and it was found in India, Indonesia, China and Africa. The indigo, which is blue, has shades of gray, green and red. Dye producers make paint tests in different colors with indigo properties. However, the attempts made until today have failed, the fading of color cannot be achieved and the penetration to the fibers cannot be prevented. Since the indigo does not penetrate the yarn in one place, the dipping of the yarns into the indigo craft continues until the desired tone is obtained. The more the dipping is repeated, the darker the color is obtained. After the dyeing process is over, the dead paint is removed from the yarn by means of washing techniques.
About Denim Fabric
Denim fabric is a kind of fabric which has been used centuries ago but still does not lose popularity. The most prominent feature of the denim fabric is that the warp thread is painted with indigo dye and the weft threads remain white without being affected by the dye. The denim fabric is called blue jeans among the people, but blue jeans is the name given to all the clothes that are made from denim fabrics, especially pants. Denim fabric is a kind of coarse, durable and useful fabric used for making sportswear and blue jeans and it is generally preferred to be produced with one layer of 100% cotton yarn. Denim fabrics are produced with indigo dye material and twill yarns are produced with twill weave, which is called gabardine, even though the fabric is woven with various fabrics.
Left (S) twill fabrics are softer than right (Z) twill fabrics. Generally, yarns used in denim fabrics are Z twills. If the preferred lattice is a left twill (S), the twill of thread will be reversed and the thread tension will reduce and the twist will open. This also leads to the softness of the woven fabric. The reason for choosing the right (Z) twill is that it causes less flexing. Because of the dense nature of the warp threads on the surface of the fabric, the color of the warp threads is dominant in the appearance of the fabric. Denim fabrics are produced by a different process than other classical woven fabrics due to the indigo dye materials. This difference usually manifests itself in the weaving preparation room. The yarns are painted with the indigo dye material in the form of rope or warp, are sized and sent to weaving.
The indigo coloring material, which is referred to as “living color”, is now being produced synthetically and it provides color change and whitening of the product painted with this coloring agent with time and washing. In denim weaving, rotor yarn (OE) are preferred in large proportions and ring carded yarn are preferred in small proportions. Apart from these, there are also denim fabrics in which fantasy and special yarns are used. There are many kinds of denim that are mentioned in the market with different names.
Some of these are:
Natural Denim is a fabric with uncoated warp and weft yarns.
The Ancient Denim is a denim fabric that is woven in shuttle looms with weft and warp threads as ring threads at the end of the nineteenth century. Nowadays, a fabric with the same effect is quite difficult to find.
Fish Net Denim is a warp and weft are woven fabric from the slinky Ring yarn.
Stretch / Lycra Denim Cotton is a woven fabric made of warp yarns composed of twisted weave of elastic character lycra yarns and of warp yarns produced from 100% cotton yarn.
In the identification of denim fabrics, ounce/yrd2 is used as weight unit. Its metric conversion is 1 ounce/yrd2 = 33,91 g/m2. The unit weights of the denim fabrics are between 3.5 – 16.5 oz / yd2 (118 – 560 g / m2).
The weight unit (ounce) used in denim fabrics also helps in grouping fabrics and determining the area of use.
Examples include the following group:
4,5 oz – 7,5 oz Denim: Denim fabric used in shirts.
9 oz – 13.5 oz Denim: Denim cloth used in summer pants.
14 oz – 15 oz Denim: Denim cloth used in trousers and coats.
Denim fabrics are expressed in the world as “jeans”, “blue jeans“, “jeans wear” and “sportswear“. In Turkey, the denim fabric is called “kot” and the trousers made with denim fabrics is called “kot pantolon”. To clarify this concept confusion in the definition of denomination, all of them are described and explained separately.
Jeans derived from blue trousers worn by casual wearers of ships and other industrial workers in Genoa port. Jeans are dense heavy cotton fabrics, woven with intact threads, D 2/1 Z or D 3/1 Z twill, which is dominated by warp and weft yarns on the surface, and painted in different colors.
Jeans-wear: made of jeans-type fabrics such as trousers, shirts, skirts, vests and jackets are called clothes.
Sports Wear: any kind of garment which is called as sportswear, casual wear or free-time clothes.
How did the denim fabric diversify and become fashionable?
The diversity of demand in the 1950s and 1960s led manufacturers to experiment the colors that could be applied to different washing techniques and denim fabrics. By the end of the 1980s, peg-top jeans, which were produced from lycra-blended denim fabric that wrapped the body, began to spread. Since Jean is popular in every segment, haute couture creators have also felt the urge to experiment new designs. In 1970, Yves Saint Laurent took blue jeans on the podium for a catwalk. Fashion designers like Calvin Klein, Armani and Valentino followed him.Natural Denim